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2016年5月7日托福阅读考试解析

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2016年5月7日托福阅读考试解析Passage 1  Life on Mars  文章解析  文章要点概括:  本文通过各种线索探究火星上是否有生命存在,要点包括:  *火星表面没有水这一事实大大降低了火星存在生命性征的可能性  *火星的陨石坠落到地球上,为科学家提供了有价值的研究依据:首先分析发现陨石中含有碳元素,然而碳只有在有水的条件的情况下才能形成,所以这个证据不足以证明火星上有生命。其次,陨石中还发现类似地球远古生物的物质,但是古生物学家对此反驳-这些生物太小不可能具有生物的基本性征,因此不足以证明火星存在生物  *火星上是否有生命还需要更多的证据  总结:  对于火星的研究大多数关注火星上是否有水,本次考试出现的文章内容关注火星上是否有生命特征。作为比较热门的天体之一,相信各位考生对于火星题材已经比较熟悉。另外文章在探究生命的过程中运用了一些比较生僻的生物,化学类专有词汇,但是完全可以通过上下文了解大致信息,所以难度不大,属于中等难度。  近期考试相关类型文章:  2015.1.25 Early life-forms and Earth’s Atmosphere  2015.3.7 Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth  2016.1.24 Water and life on Mars  阅读延伸:  首先,作为热门题材,笔者在此还是建议各位考生对天文类的基础信息做到了解和熟悉,这样无论详细的研究方向如何变化,熟悉背景知识会在很大程度上降低文章的整体难度。  TPO中涉及天文的文章包括:  TPO16-3 Plants in our solar system  TPO08-3 Running water on Mars (火星相关题材)  TPO25-1 The surface of Mars (火星相关题材)  TPO22-3 The Allende Meteorite  TPO36-2 The origin of Earth Atmosphere  TPO41-2 Climate of Venus  passage 2  Groundwater  文章要点概括:  *地下水储量巨大,是可供利用的水源之一  *然而过度利用地下水,使其水量越来越少,并且多度利用导致很多严重的问题  问题一:过度利用是蓄水层(acquifer)枯竭,地下水位(water table) 下降  问题二:过度利用导致地表塌陷  问题三:过度利用还会导致土壤盐碱化  总结:  整篇文章结构清晰,全文围绕地下水的过度利用导致的危害展开说明,每段主旨明确,例证丰富,专有词汇并不多,比较好把握。  阅读延伸:  目前TPO 中涉及地下水的文章包括TPO01-3 Groundwater  TPO03-2 Depletion of the Ogallala Acquifer (第四段和本次考试内容相关)  TPO28-1 Ground water  Groundwater相关题材的文章在2015年的考试中几乎没有出现  背景知识补充:  地下水利用示意图2016年5月7日托福阅读考试解析  (Reference:http://www.montereyinstitute.org/noaa/lesson07/l7la2.htm)  Potential Threats to Our Groundwater Overuse and Depletion  Groundwater is the largest source of usable, fresh water in the world. In many parts of the world, especially where surface water supplies are not available, domestic, agricultural, and industrial water needs can only be met by using the water beneath the ground.  The U.S. Geological Survey compares the water stored in the ground to money kept in a bank account. If the money is withdrawn at a faster rate than new money is deposited, there will eventually be account-supply problems. Pumping water out of the ground at a faster rate than it is replenished over the long-term causes similar problems.  Groundwater depletion is primarily caused by sustained groundwater pumping. Some of the negative effects of groundwater depletion:  Lowering of the Water Table  Excessive pumping can lower the groundwater table, and cause wells to no longer be able to reach groundwater.  Increased Costs  As the water table lowers, the water must be pumped farther to reach the surface, using more energy. In extreme cases, using such a well can be cost prohibitive.  Reduced Surface Water Supplies  Groundwater and surface water are connected. When groundwater is overused, the lakes, streams, and rivers connected to groundwater can also have their supply diminished.  Land Subsidence  Land subsidence occurs when there is a loss of support below ground. This is most often caused by human activities, mainly from the overuse of groundwater, when the soil collapses, compacts, and drops.  Water Quality Concerns  Excessive pumping in coastal areas can cause saltwater to move inland and upward, resulting in saltwater contamination of the water supply.  Reference:  http://www.groundwater.org/get-informed/groundwater/overuse.html  passage 3  Aquatic animals in desert  文章要点概括:  文章关注两栖动物(amphibian)如何在沙漠中生存  *两栖动物在干旱季节会利用各种手段存活,比如穴居冬眠。在冬眠过程中,特殊的皮肤构造可以减少水分的蒸发,保持住水分使自己存活  *湿润季节来临时,两栖动物会利用短暂的时间交配,繁殖,延续种族的繁衍。对此,文章举了蟾蜍(toad)和虾(shrimp)的例子来详细阐述动物是如何度过干旱季节和水分丰富的雨季的  总结:  文章属于常考的动物类题材,主要关注两栖动物在沙漠中如何生存。本文的难点在于出现了大量的和动物行为相关的生词,不太好理解,对考生理解文章会产生很大的干扰作用。  阅读延伸:  TPO 中的动物类文章包括:  TPO 15-1 A warm-blooded turtle  TPO 17-2 Animal signals in the rain forest  TPO 28-3 Buck rubs and buck scrapes  TPO 30-1 Role pf play in development  TPO 32-3 Distributions of tropical bee colonies  TPO 40-3 Amphibian Thermoregulation (两栖动物相关)  近期考试相关文章:  两栖动物相关题材:  2015.9.13Mating Songs of Frogs  2015.5.9Vocalization of Frogs  动物适应环境相关题材:  2015.10.11 The Adaptations of Marine Mammals  2015.6.27 Sea Life Adaptations in the Deep Ocean  背景知识补充:  Toads living at the sand dunes presumably bury themselves in a permanently wet layer in the sand. Adults appear to retain several layers of partially shed skin, which presumably form semi-impermeable membranes that reduce moisture loss. Body fluids of field animals just after emergence contain very high osmotic concentrations (approximately 20 ‰ compared to hydrated animals (7 to 8 ‰). This also presumably tends to reduce water loss, perhaps even to aid in extracting moisture from a damp environment. In the laboratory, eggs require less than 48 hours for hatching at room temperature, and tadpoles produce legs within ten days.  Reference:  Mayhew, W. W.. (1965). Adaptations of the Amphibian, Scaphiopus couchi, to Desert Conditions. The American Midland Naturalist, 74(1), 95–109. http://doi.org/10.2307/2423123  词汇题汇总  diminishing-reducing  rudimentary-primitive  hasten-hurry  readily-quickly  prolong-extend  divert-redirect  hence-thus  widespread-common  excessive-too much  controversial-debated
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withdrawn [wið'drɔ:n]
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adj. 偏僻的,离群的,孤独的,内向的 动词withd
联想记忆
negative ['negətiv]
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adj. 否定的,负的,消极的
n. 底片,负
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tropical ['trɔpikəl]
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adj. 热带的,炎热的,热带植物的
 
partially ['pɑ:ʃəli]
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adv. 部份地,一部份地,不公平地
 
approximately [ə'prɔksimitli]
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adv. 近似地,大约
 
quality ['kwɔliti]
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n. 品质,特质,才能
adj. 高品质的
 
potential [pə'tenʃəl]
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adj. 可能的,潜在的
n. 潜力,潜能
 
diminished [di'miniʃt]
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adj. 减退了的;减弱的 v. 减少;削弱(dimin
 
domestic [də'mestik]
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adj. 国内的,家庭的,驯养的
n. 家仆,
 
excessive [ik'sesiv]
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adj. 过多的,过分的
 

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