Up to 800 million global workers will lose their jobs by 2030 and be replaced by robotic automation, a new report has found.
The study of 46 countries and 800 occupations by the McKinsey Global Institute found that up to one-fifth of the global work force will be affected.
It said one-third of the workforce in richer nations such as Germany and the US may need to retrain for other jobs. Machine operators and food workers will be hit hardest.
The authors see tasks carried out by mortgage brokers, paralegals, accountants, and some back-office staff as especially vulnerable to automation.
Jobs requiring human interaction such as doctors, lawyers, teachers and bartenders are seen by McKinsey as less prone to automation.
Specialized lower-wage jobs, such as gardening, plumbing and care work, will also be less affected by automation, the study predicted.