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阿联酋想在火星建立城市基地

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The United Arab Emirates is really good at enormously ambitious, and just physically enormous projects.
阿联酋特别善于展示它的雄心勃勃,但只限于外观的雄伟壮观。
From the Burj Khalifa to their artificial islands, to the mountain they want to build,
从哈利法塔到人工岛,再到他们想建的山,
to that giant indoor ski resort they have:
甚至到巨大的室内滑雪胜地:
the UAE is about pushing the limits of engineering,
阿联酋正把工程推到极限,
sometimes out of necessity, and sometimes because they're just feeling it.
有时是出于必要,有时只是想试试。
And now they're taking that feeling and running with it to Mars, in the form of a giant Martian colony.
现在,他们想试试建造巨大的火星基地,并在火星上运行。
But first, they're planning to build a model colony here on Earth,
但首先,他们计划在地球上建立一个基地模型,
the biggest Mars simulation anyone has ever done.
这是有史以来最大的火星模拟。
In 2014, the UAE established their space program and announced their inaugural mission:
2014年,阿联酋确立了他们的太空计划并宣布了他们的初始任务:
the Al-Amal, or Hope orbiter, which will monitor Mars's atmosphere and weather.
Al-Amal或“Hope” 轨道器,将监视火星大气和气候。
Mars's atmosphere used to be much thicker, and the causes of its thinning aren't entirely known.
火星大气曾经很厚,它变薄的原因还不完全清楚。
The planet's lack of magnetic field probably plays a role,
缺乏磁场可能起着一定的作用,
but we don't have any definitive answers to the question yet.
但我们还没有明确的答案。
So with Hope, they're hoping to answer that question.
所以他们希望“Hope”能回答这个问题。
It's set to launch in 2020 and arrive at Mars in 2021.
它将于2020年发射,并于2021年抵达火星。
But the UAE is thinking really long term about Mars,
但是阿联酋正在考虑火星的长远发展,
and also has plans to build a whole city up there.
而且还计划在那里建立一座完整的城市。
They want to get 600,000 people living on Mars.
他们想让60万人住在火星上。
That's super ambitious, especially considering we haven't sent anyone to Mars yet,
这个计划非常有野心,特别是在考虑到我们还没有把任何人送到火星的情况下,
but their deadline is 100 years from now, so they do have plenty of time to figure it out.
但他们的最后期限是100年后,所以有足够的时间来解决这个问题。
And that's where their most recent Mars-related project comes in: a smaller, model colony in the Emirates.
与火星相关的最新项目——阿联酋的一个小型实验基地脱颖而出。
And when I say "smaller", all I mean is that
我说它“小”是指
it's not going to be nearly as big as the actual planned colony on Mars.
它不会像计划中的火星基地那么大。
It'll still be pretty darn huge, about two-tenths of a square kilometer in area,
但它的规模还是相当大的,面积约为一平方公里的二十分之一,
or about half the size of the Vatican.
大约是梵蒂冈的一半。
And the whole thing is going to be covered with domes!
整个地区会被圆顶覆盖。
基地.pngIt won't be the first simulated Mars habitat, although it will be the biggest.
它不会是第一个火星模拟栖息地,尽管它将是最大的。
The Mars Society runs two habitats, in Utah in the US and Nunavut in Canada.
火星协会在美国犹他州和加拿大的努勒维特还有两个栖息地,
And the University of Hawaii has one too.
而且夏威夷大学也有一个。
All of these simulations are places for teams of scientists
所有这些模拟基地都是科学家团队工作的地方,
to conduct astrobiological and geological research in environments that are a lot like Mars.
他们在类似火星的环境中进行天体生物学和地质的研究。
At the same time, they can simulate the realities of living in a scientific settlement on a planet that can't support you.
同时,他们可以模拟无法获得星球支持的科学定居点的真实生活。
There tend to be lots of rules: you can't go outside of your living space without wearing a spacesuit;
栖息地有很多规则:你不穿宇航服就不能走出你的生活空间;
your water use is extremely well-regulated, and you can't communicate off-base without a 20-minute delay.
你的用水非常规范;你必须在有20分钟延迟的情况下交流。
The habitats allow scientists to work on their own projects there,
这些栖息地供科学家们从事自己的项目,
while simultaneously being part of a long-term psychological experiment:
同时也成为长期心理实验的一部分。
how will scientists fare when stuck in a little hab together?
当科学家们一起被困在一个小栖息地时,他们将会怎样呢?
How do we meet their psychological and emotional needs?
我们如何满足他们的心理和情感需求?
The UAE's environment will work on answering similar questions by having a crew live in their habitat for a year.
阿联酋的环境将致力于回答类似的问题,方法是让组员住在他们的栖息地一年。
But it'll also be a sandbox for engineers to test the kinds of systems
栖息地也将成为工程师测试各种系统的沙箱,
they'll need to support a long-term settlement on Mars,
它们需要支持在火星上的长期定居点,
something we haven't really been able to do before on such a large scale.
这么大规模的我们之前还没能做到。
Everything is still very conceptual at this point,
在这一点上,一切都很概念化,
the UAE Space Agency hasn't even said when they're planning on having this thing built.
阿联酋航空航天局甚至没有说他们打算什么时候建造。
But they have released some very preliminary plans for their Dome-inion.
但他们已经发布了一些“Dome-inion”的初步计划。
That's not the official name, we're just really hoping it catches on.
这不是它的正式名称,我们只是希望它能流行起来。
The colony will be contained inside three domes,
基地将被包含在三个圆顶内,
and it's going to be really crucial to get those domes right.
把这些圆顶做好至关重要。
Earth's atmosphere filters out lots of UV radiation from the sun,
地球的大气层过滤大量来自太阳的紫外线,
but Mars's atmosphere isn't thick enough to do that.
但是火星的大气层不够厚,做不到这样。
Which means people on the surface would face everything from bad sunburns to skin cancer unless they're protected.
这会导致其表面的人们面对一切,从严重晒伤到皮肤癌,除非他们受到保护。
In theory the domes are going to do the job that Mars's atmosphere can't,
理论上,圆顶会做火星大气层做不到的工作,
and will be made out of a material that can shield inhabitants from Mars's high UV flux.
它将由一种可以保护居民免受火星高紫外线辐射的材料制成。
Based on some of the concept art they've drawn up,
根据他们制定的一些概念设计,
it might also be possible to control how much light the material lets through,
控制材料通过多少光很有可能实现,
which would be a way to have the people and plants in the model city living on Martian day/night cycles.
这为人和植物提供了一种方法,使他们能在模型城市里有火星的日夜周期。
No word on what this material is yet, but again, they have a while to figure it out.
目前还没有关于材料的消息,但是他们有时间解决这个问题。
Since the whole thing will be enclosed,
因为整个居住地都要封闭。
engineers will be able to test the atmospheric regulation systems,
工程师们将能够测试大气调节系统、
water filtration systems, temperature regulation systems,
水过滤系统、温度调节系统,
all the usual mechanical stuff that you need to survive when your environment can't support you.
以及环境无法供应你时,你生存所需的所有普通机械产品。
And they'll be developing these systems to accommodate a small city,
他们将开发这些系统以供应一个小城市,
rather than just a little habitat or a space station, so it's a big challenge!
而不仅仅是一个小小的栖息地或者空间站,所以这是一个巨大的挑战!
But probably the biggest problem engineers will have to solve is how to feed everyone.
但是,工程师们需要解决的最大问题可能是如何养活所有人。
For a permanent or semi-permanent colony, you can't rely on shipments of food from Earth.
对于永久或半永久的基地来说,你不能依赖从地球运来的食物。
And while Mars's soil does contain some of the elements and molecules that plants need to grow,
虽然火星土壤中含有植物生长所需的一些元素和分子,
they're not abundant enough to really support agriculture.
但不足以真正支持农业。
So we'll have to apply everything we know about agriculture to this new environment,
所以我们必须把自己了解的农业知识应用到这个新环境中去,
which is okay because if humans know how to do anything, it's farming.
因为我们对务农是无所不知的。
We are so good at that. It's kind of our thing as a species.
我们很擅长这个。这是我们人类的本能。
That and long-distance running and fully rotatable arms.
除了这个,我们还能长跑,能充分旋转手臂。
Anyway, farming, we're really good at it, especially since we've figured out how to manipulate genes.
总之,我们很擅长农业,特别是我们已经知道如何控制基因了。
Genetically modified plants that can thrive in relatively nutrient-poor soil
在相对营养不良的土壤中转基因植物可以茁壮成长,
or produce higher amounts of proteins, carbs, or essential vitamins already exist,
或者产生更多蛋白质、碳水化合物或必需的维生素的植物已经存在,
and of course we have all kinds of fertilizers, both natural and synthetic.
当然我们还有各种各样的肥料,天然的和合成的都有。
So a lot of the foundation work is done there
所以很多基础工作都完成了,
but we are still a long way from being able to farm in such an extreme environment as Mars.
但是我们离能够在火星这样的极端环境下耕作还有很长的路要走。
Even with plenty of potatoes and poop.
即使有很多土豆和粪便。
In addition to all the research going on in the Dome-inion,
除此之外,“Dome-inion”的所有研究都在进行着,
they're also planning on building a museum in there, with walls 3D-printed from local sand.
他们还计划在那里建一座博物馆,用当地的沙子做3d打印。
The museum will celebrate the history of human spaceflight, and who knows,
博物馆将庆祝人类太空飞行的历史,谁知道呢。
maybe by a century from now,
也许一个世纪以后,
it'lll inspire 600,000 people to pick up their lives and fly to another planet.
它将激励60万人用他们的生命,飞向另一个星球。
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space!
感谢您收看本期的太空科学秀!
To learn more about other plans to help us live on Mars,
想要了解更多到火星居住的其他计划,
you can check out our episode about the plans for Mars One.
可以观看“the plans for Mars One”那一期。
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scale [skeil]
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n. 鳞,刻度,衡量,数值范围
v. 依比例决
 
atmospheric [.ætməs'ferik]
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adj. 大气的,大气层的,制造气氛的
 
radiation [.reidi'eiʃən]
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n. 辐射,放射线
 
environment [in'vaiərənmənt]
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n. 环境,外界
 
artificial [.ɑ:ti'fiʃəl]
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adj. 人造的,虚伪的,武断的
联想记忆
resort [ri'zɔ:t]
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n. (度假)胜地,手段,凭借
vi. 诉诸,
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celebrate ['selibreit]
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v. 庆祝,庆贺,颂扬
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magnetic [mæg'netik]
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adj. 有磁性的,有吸引力的,催眠术的
联想记忆
regulation [.regju'leiʃən]
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n. 规则,规章,管理
adj. 规定的,官方
 
established [is'tæbliʃt]
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adj. 已被确认的,确定的,建立的,制定的 动词est
 
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