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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第335期:美丽而危险(18)

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It's a kind of genetic photocopying, and it became the basis for all subsequent genetic science, from academic studies to police forensic work. It won Mullis the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1993.
这一种复制基因的方法后来成了遗传科学的基础,无论是对于学术研究,还是对于警方的法医工作。穆利斯因此获得了1993年的诺贝尔化学奖。
Yellowstone national parkMeanwhile, scientists were finding even hardier microbes, now known as hyperthermophiles, which demand temperatures of 80 degrees centigrade (176 degrees Fahrenheit) or more. The warmest organism found so far, according to Frances Ashcroft in Life at the Extremes, is Pyrolobus fumarii, which dwells in the walls of ocean vents where the temperature can reach 113 degrees centigrade (235.4 degrees Fahrenheit). The upper limit for life is thought to be about 120 degrees centigrade (248 degrees Fahrenheit), though no one actually knows. At all events, the Brocks' findings completely changed our perception of the living world. As NASA scientist Jay Bergstralh has put it: "Wherever we go on Earth——even into what's seemed like the most hostile possible environments for life—as long as there is liquid water and some source of chemical energy we find life."
与此同时,科学家们正发现更耐热的微生物。现在,它们被称之为超喜温微生物,要求80摄氏度以上的温度。弗朗西丝·阿什克罗夫特在《极端条件下的生命》一书中写道,迄今为止发现的最喜温的微生物是延胡索酸热球蛋白菌,它们生活在海洋喷气孔的岩壁里,那里的温度高达113摄氏度。生命的上限被认为是120摄氏度左右,虽然实际上谁也不知道。无论如何,布罗克夫妇的发现完全改变了我们对生物界的看法。美国国家航空和航天局的科学家杰伊·伯格斯特拉尔说:“在地球上,我们无论走到哪里——即使进入看来对生命最不利的环境里,只要那里有液态水以及某种化学能,我们就能发现生命。”
Life, it turns out, is infinitely more clever and adaptable than anyone had ever supposed. This is a very good thing, for as we are about to see, we live in a world that doesn't altogether seem to want us here.
原来,生命比任何人想像的要聪明得多,在适应能力方面要强得多。我们马上就会明白,这是一件很好的事,因为我们所生活的世界,似乎并不完全希望我们待在这里。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
hostile ['hɔstail]
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adj. 怀敌意的,敌对的
 
liquid ['likwid]
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adj. 液体的,液态的
n. 液体
 
source [sɔ:s]
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n. 发源地,来源,原始资料
 
adaptable [ə'dæptəbl]
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adj. 能适应的,适应性强的,可改编的
联想记忆
genetic [dʒi'netik]
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adj. 基因的,遗传的,起源的
联想记忆
organism ['ɔ:gənizəm]
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n. 生物体,有机体
 
perception [pə'sepʃən]
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n. 感知,认识,观念
 
temperature ['tempritʃə(r)]
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n. 温度,气温,体温,发烧
 
academic [.ækə'demik]
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adj. 学术的,学院的,理论的
n.
 
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