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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第301期:地下的烈火(9)

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The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, for comparison, measured an estimated 7.8 on the Richter scale and lasted less than thirty seconds.
相比之下,1906年的旧金山地震只有里氏7.8级,持续了不到30秒。
Earthquakes are fairly common. Every day on average somewhere in the world there are two of magnitude 2.0 or greater—that's enough to give anyone nearby a pretty good jolt. Although they tend to cluster in certain places—notably around the rim of the Pacific—they can occur almost anywhere. In the United States, only Florida, eastern Texas, and the upper Midwest seem—so far—to be almost entirely immune. New England has had two quakes of magnitude 6.0 or greater in the last two hundred years. In April 2002, the region experienced a 5.1 magnitude shaking in a quake near Lake Champlain on the New York-Vermont border, causing extensive local damage and (I can attest) knocking pictures from walls and children from beds as far away as New Hampshire.
地震是相当普遍的。世界上平均每天都要发生两次2.0级或以上的地震──其强度足以使附近的人感到心惊肉跳。地震往往集中在某些地区──引人注目的是太平洋沿岸地区──但地震几乎可以发生在任何地方。在美国──迄今为止──只有佛罗里达州、得克萨斯州东部和中西部北部,好像几乎完全幸免于难。在过去的200年里,新英格兰有过两次6级以上地震。2002年4月,位于这个地区纽约州-佛蒙特州边境的尚普兰湖附近地区经历了一次5.1级地震,给当地造成很大的破坏,连远在新罕布什尔州(我可以作证),墙上的照片也被震落下来,床上的小孩被掀翻在地。
关东大地震场面The most common types of earthquakes are those where two plates meet, as in California along the San Andreas Fault. As the plates push against each other, pressures build up until one or the other gives way. In general, the longer the interval between quakes, the greater the pent-up pressure and thus the greater the scope for a really big jolt. This is a particular worry for Tokyo, which Bill McGuire, a hazards specialist at University College London, describes as "the city waiting to die" (not a motto you will find on many tourism leaflets).
最常见的地震发生在两个板块相接之处,比如沿圣安德烈斯断层的加利福尼亚州。两个板块互相推推搡搡,压力随之增加,最后一方或另一方作出让步。总的来说,两次地震的间隔越长,积储的压力就越大,大地震波及的范围就越广。东京特别担心这样的事情发生。伦敦大学院的危险事件专家比尔·麦圭尔把东京描述成一个“等待死亡的城市”(你会发现,许多旅游传单上没有印上这句名言)。
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certain ['sə:tn]
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adj. 确定的,必然的,特定的
pron.
 
motto ['mɔtəu]
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n. 座右铭,箴言
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experienced [iks'piəriənst]
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adj. 有经验的
 
attest [ə'test]
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v. 证明,作证,为 ... 作证
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tend [tend]
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v. 趋向,易于,照料,护理
 
particular [pə'tikjulə]
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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.
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pacific [pə'sifik]
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n. 太平洋
adj. 太平洋的
p
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scope [skəup]
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n. 能力,范围,眼界,机会,余地
vt. 仔
 
earthquake ['ə:θkweik]
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n. 地震
 
comparison [kəm'pærisn]
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n. 比较
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