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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第238期:马斯特-马克的夸克(10)

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In an attempt to draw everything together, physicists have come up with something called superstring theory. This postulates that all those little things like quarks and leptons that we had previously thought of as particles are actually "strings"—vibrating strands of energy that oscillate in eleven dimensions, consisting of the three we know already plus time and seven other dimensions that are, well, unknowable to us. The strings are very tiny—tiny enough to pass for point particles.
物理学家试图把什么都扯到一起,结果想出来一种所谓的超弦理论。这种理论假设,以前我们认为是粒子的夸克和轻子,实际上都是“弦”──振动的能弦,它们在11维中摆动,包括我们已知的3个,维度再加上时间,以及7个别的维度,它们,哎呀,我们现在还无法知道。这种弦非常微小──小得可以被看成是点粒子。
夸克By introducing extra dimensions, superstring theory enables physicists to pull together quantum laws and gravitational ones into one comparatively tidy package, but it also means that anything scientists say about the theory begins to sound worryingly like the sort of thoughts that would make you edge away if conveyed to you by a stranger on a park bench. Here, for example, is the physicist Michio Kaku explaining the structure of the universe from a superstring perspective: "The heterotic string consists of a closed string that has two types of vibrations, clockwise and counterclockwise, which are treated differently. The clockwise vibrations live in a ten-dimensional space. The counterclockwise live in a twenty-sixdimensional space, of which sixteen dimensions have been compactified. (We recall that in Kaluza's original five-dimensional, the fifth dimension was compactified by being wrapped up into a circle.)" And so it goes, for some 350 pages.
通过引入额外的维度,超弦理论使科学家能把量子定律和引力定律相对比较融洽地合在一起,但是,这也意味着,科学家关于这个理论的任何解释,听上去都会令人惴惴不安,犹如公园凳子上的陌生人告诉你某个想法,你听了会慢慢走开一样。比如,物理学家米奇奥·卡库是这样从超弦理论的角度来解释宇宙的结构的:杂化弦由一根闭合的弦组成,它有两种振动模式,顺时针方向的和逆时针方向的,要以不同的方式来对待。顺时针方向的振动存在于一个10维空间。逆时针方向的振动存在于一个26维的空间,其中有16维已经被压实了。(我们知道,在卡鲁扎原先的5维空间里,第5维被卷成一个圈,已经给压实了。)如此等等,洋洋洒洒350页左右。
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tidy ['taidi]
想一想再看
adj. 整齐的,整洁的,相当大的
vt. 使
 
previously ['pri:vju:sli]
想一想再看
adv. 先前,在此之前
 
universe ['ju:nivə:s]
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n. 宇宙,万物,世界
联想记忆
string [striŋ]
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n. 线,一串,字串
vt. 串起,成串,收紧
 
bench [bentʃ]
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n. 长凳,工作台,法官席
vt. 坐(
联想记忆
oscillate ['ɔsi.leit]
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v. 振动,彷徨,犹豫 v. 使振动,使动摇
联想记忆
gravitational ['grævə'teiʃənəl]
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adj. 重力的,引力作用的
联想记忆
original [ə'ridʒənl]
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adj. 最初的,原始的,有独创性的,原版的
联想记忆
dimension [di'menʃən]
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n. 尺寸,次元,容积,维度,范围,方面
vt
联想记忆
circle ['sə:kl]
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n. 圈子,圆周,循环
v. 环绕,盘旋,包围
 
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