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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第207期:威力巨大的原子(21)

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It seemed as if there was no end of strangeness. For the first time, as James Trefil has put it, scientists had encountered “an area of the universe that our brains just aren’t wired to understand.” Or as Feynman expressed it, “things on a small scale behave nothing like things on a large scale.” As physicists delved deeper, they realized they had found a world where not only could electrons jump from one orbit to another without traveling across any intervening space, but matter could pop into existence from nothing at all—“provided,” in the words of Alan Lightman of MIT, “it disappears again with sufficient haste.”
古怪的事情似乎层出不穷。正如詹姆斯·特雷菲尔所说,科学家们首次碰到了“宇宙里我们的大脑无法理解的一个区域”。或者像费曼说的:“小东西的表现,根本不像大东西的表现。”随着深入钻研,物理学家们意识到,他们已经发现了一个世界:在那个世界里,电子可以从一个轨道跳到另一个轨道,而又不经过中间的任何空间;物质突然从无到有──“不过,”用麻省理工学院艾伦·莱特曼的话来说,“又倏忽从有到无。”
公式图Perhaps the most arresting of quantum improbabilities is the idea, arising from Wolfgang Pauli’s Exclusion Principle of 1925, that the subatomic particles in certain pairs, even when separated by the most considerable distances, can each instantly “know” what the other is doing. Particles have a quality known as spin and, according to quantum theory, the moment you determine the spin of one particle, its sister particle, no matter how distant away, will immediately begin spinning in the opposite direction and at the same rate.
量子理论有许多令人难以置信的地方,其中最引人注目的是沃尔夫冈·泡利在1925年的“不相容原理”中提出的看法:某些成双结对的亚原子粒子,即使被分开很远的距离,一方马上会“知道”另一方的情况。粒子有个特性,叫做自旋,根据量子理论,你一确定一个粒子的自旋,那个姐妹粒子马上以相反的方向、相等的速率开始自旋,无论它在多远的地方。
It is as if, in the words of the science writer Lawrence Joseph, you had two identical pool balls, one in Ohio and the other in Fiji, and the instant you sent one spinning the other would immediately spin in a contrary direction at precisely the same speed.
用科学作家劳伦斯·约瑟夫的话来说,这就好比你有两个相同的台球,一个在美国俄亥俄州,一个在斐济,当你旋转其中一个的时候,另一个马上以相反的方向旋转,而且速度完全一样。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
understand [.ʌndə'stænd]
想一想再看
vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<
 
principle ['prinsəpl]
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n. 原则,原理,主义,信念
 
separated ['sepəreitid]
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adj. 分居;分开的;不在一起生活的 v. 分开;隔开
 
haste [heist]
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n. 急速,急忙
v. 匆忙,赶快
 
quality ['kwɔliti]
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n. 品质,特质,才能
adj. 高品质的
 
considerable [kən'sidərəbl]
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adj. 相当大的,可观的,重要的
联想记忆
determine [di'tə:min]
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v. 决定,决心,确定,测定
联想记忆
identical [ai'dentikəl]
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adj. 相同的,同一的
 
contrary ['kɔntrəri]
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adj. 相反的,截然不同的
adv. 相反(
联想记忆
arresting [ə'restiŋ]
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adj. 引人注意的;醒目的,有趣的 v. 逮捕(arr
 
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