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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第143期:基本物质(11)

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In between these undertakings, he somehow found time to conduct a good deal of solid science. He became the world's foremost authority on thermodynamics and the first to elucidate the principles of the convection of fluids and the circulation of ocean currents. He also invented several useful objects, including a drip coffee maker, thermal underwear, and a type of range still known as the Rumford fireplace. In 1805, during a sojourn in France, he wooed and married Madame Lavoisier, widow of Antoine-Laurent. The marriage was not a success and they soon parted. Rumford stayed on in France, where he died, universally esteemed by all but his former wives, in 1814.
在此期间,他挤出时间搞了大量纯科学工作。他成为世界上最著名的热力学权威,成为阐述液体对流和洋流循环原理的第一人。他还发明了几样有用的东西,包括滴滤咖啡壶、保暖内衣和一种现在仍叫做伦福德火炉的炉灶。1805年在法国逗留期间,他向安托万-洛朗·拉瓦锡的遗孀拉瓦锡太太求爱,娶她当了夫人。这桩婚事并不成功,他们很快就分道扬镳。伦福德继续留在法国,直到1814年去世。他受到法国人的普遍尊敬,除了他的几位前妻。
洋流循环图But our purpose in mentioning him here is that in 1799, during a comparatively brief interlude in London, he founded the Royal Institution, yet another of the many learned societies that popped into being all over Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. For a time it was almost the only institution of standing to actively promote the young science of chemistry, and that was thanks almost entirely to a brilliant young man named Humphry Davy, who was appointed the institution's professor of chemistry shortly after its inception and rapidly gained fame as an outstanding lecturer and productive experimentalist.
我们之所以在这里提到他,是因为1799年他在伦敦的短暂停留期间创建了皇家科学研究所。18世纪末和19世纪初,英国各地涌现了许多学术团体,它成了其中的又一名成员。在一段时间里,它几乎是惟一的一所旨在积极发展化学这门新兴科学的有名望的机构,而这几乎完全要归功于一位名叫汉弗莱·戴维的杰出的年轻人。这个机构成立之后不久,戴维被任命为该研究所的化学教授,很快就名噪一时,成为一位卓越的授课者和多产的实验师。
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interlude ['intəlju:d]
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n. 中间,中间时间,介在中间的事件
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elucidate [i'lu:si.deit]
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v. 阐明,说明
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promote [prə'məut]
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vt. 促进,提升,升迁; 发起; 促销
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institution [.insti'tju:ʃən]
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n. 机构,制度,创立
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conduct [kən'dʌkt]
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n. 行为,举动,品行
v. 引导,指挥,管理
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authority [ə'θɔ:riti]
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n. 权力,权威,职权,官方,当局
 
outstanding [aut'stændiŋ]
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adj. 突出的,显著的,未支付的
 
brilliant ['briljənt]
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adj. 卓越的,光辉的,灿烂的
n. 宝石
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productive [prə'dʌktiv]
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adj. 能生产的,有生产价值的,多产的
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circulation [.sə:kju'leiʃən]
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n. 流通,循环,发行量,消息传播
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