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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第135期:基本物质(7)

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And his fancy equipment did in fact come in very handy. For years, he and Madame Lavoisier occupied themselves with extremely exacting studies requiring the finest measurements. They determined, for instance, that a rusting object doesn't lose weight, as everyone had long assumed, but gains weight—an extraordinary discovery. Somehow as it rusted the object was attracting elemental particles from the air. It was the first realization that matter can be transformed but not eliminated. If you burned this book now, its matter would be changed to ash and smoke, but the net amount of stuff in the universe would be the same. This became known as the conservation of mass, and it was a revolutionary concept.
他的想像力实际上是得来全不费工夫的。多年来,他和拉瓦锡太太一直在忙于艰苦的研究工作,那些研究要求最精密的计算。比如,他们确定,生锈的物体不会像大家长期以来认为的那样变轻,而会变重——这是一项了不起的发现。物体在生锈的过程中以某种方式从空气中吸引基本粒子。认识到物质只会变形,不会消失,这还是第一次。假如你现在把这本书烧了,它的物质会变成灰和烟,但物质在宇宙中的总量不会改变。后来,这被称之为物质不灭,是一个革命性的理念。
万物简史.jpgUnfortunately, it coincided with another type of revolution—the French one—and for this one Lavoisier was entirely on the wrong side.
不幸的是,它恰好与另一场革命——法国大革命——同时发生,而在这场革命中,拉瓦锡完全站错了队。
Not only was he a member of the hated Ferme Generale, but he had enthusiastically built the wall that enclosed Paris—an edifice so loathed that it was the first thing attacked by the rebellious citizens. Capitalizing on this, in 1791 Marat, now a leading voice in the National Assembly, denounced Lavoisier and suggested that it was well past time for his hanging. Soon afterward the Ferme Generale was shut down. Not long after this Marat was murdered in his bath by an aggrieved young woman named Charlotte Corday, but by this time it was too late for Lavoisier.
他不但是税务总公司的一名成员,而且劲头十足地修建过巴黎的城墙——起义的市民们对该建筑物厌恶之极,首先攻打的就是这东西。1791年,这时候已经是国民议会中一位重要人物的马拉利用了这一点,对拉瓦锡进行谴责,认为他早该被绞死。过不多久,马拉在洗澡时被一名受迫害的年轻女子杀害,她的名字叫夏洛特·科黛,但这对拉瓦锡来说已经为时太晚。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
conservation [.kɔnsə:'veiʃən]
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n. 保存,防止流失,守恒,保护自然资源
联想记忆
revolution [.revə'lu:ʃən]
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n. 革命,旋转,转数
联想记忆
mass [mæs]
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n. 块,大量,众多
adj. 群众的,大规模
 
extremely [iks'tri:mli]
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adv. 极其,非常
联想记忆
assumed [ə'sju:md]
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adj. 假装的;假定的
 
exacting [ig'zæktiŋ]
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adj. 苛求的,吃力的 动词exact的现在分词形式
联想记忆
occupied
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adj. 已占用的;使用中的;无空闲的 v. 占有(oc
 
aggrieved [ə'gri:vd]
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adj. (因受伤害而)愤愤不平的,痛心的,受到侵犯的
联想记忆
extraordinary [iks'trɔ:dnri]
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adj. 非凡的,特别的,特派的
联想记忆
determined [di'tə:mind]
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adj. 坚毅的,下定决心的
 
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