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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第81期:敲石头的人们(3)

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Among the questions that attracted interest in that fanatically inquisitive age was one that had puzzled people for a very long time—namely, why ancient clamshells and other marine fossils were so often found on mountaintops. How on earth did they get there?
在那个爱好钻研的时代,在许多令人感兴趣的问题当中,有个问题长期以来困扰着人们--即山顶上为什么经常发现古代的蛤蜊壳和别的海生物化石。它们到底是怎么到那里的?
Those who thought they had a solution fell into two opposing camps. One group, known as the Neptunists, was convinced that everything on Earth, including seashells in improbably lofty places, could be explained by rising and falling sea levels. They believed that mountains, hills, and other features were as old as the Earth itself, and were changed only when water sloshed over them during periods of global flooding.
许多人认为自己已经找到答案。他们分为两个对立的阵营。水成论者认为,地球上的一切,包括在高处的海洋贝壳,可以用海平面的升高和降低来解释。他们认为,山脉、丘陵和其他地貌与地球本身一样古老,只是在全球洪水时期被水冲刷的过程中发生了一些变化。
古代的蛤蜊壳和别的海生物化石.jpgOpposing them were the Plutonists, who noted that volcanoes and earthquakes, among other enlivening agents, continually changed the face of the planet but clearly owed nothing to wayward seas. The Plutonists also raised awkward questions about where all the water went when it wasn't in flood. If there was enough of it at times to cover the Alps, then where, pray, was it during times of tranquility, such as now? Their belief was that the Earth was subject to profound internal forces as well as surface ones. However, they couldn't convincingly explain how all those clamshells got up there.
对立面是火成论者。他们认为有许多充满活力的动因,其中,火山和地震不断改变这颗行星的表面,但显然跟遥远的大海毫无关系。火成论者还提出难以回答的问题:不发洪水的时候,这水都流到哪里去了?要是有时候存在足以淹没阿尔卑斯山的水,那么请问,在平静下来以后,比如现在,这水都流到哪里去了?他们认为,地球受到内部深处的力和表面的力的作用。然而,他们无法令人信服地解释,蛤蜊的壳是怎么跑到山顶上去的。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
awkward ['ɔ:kwəd]
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adj. 笨拙的,尴尬的,(设计)别扭的
 
lofty ['lɔfti]
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adj. 高的,高超的,傲慢的
 
solution [sə'lu:ʃən]
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n. 解答,解决办法,溶解,溶液
联想记忆
convinced [kən'vinst]
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adj. 信服的
 
opposing [ə'pəuziŋ]
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adj. 反作用的,反向的,相反的,对立的 动词oppo
 
profound [prə'faund]
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adj. 深奥的,深邃的,意义深远的
联想记忆
tranquility [træŋ'kwiliti]
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n. 宁静,平静,稳定
 
global ['gləubəl]
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adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的
联想记忆
fell [fel]
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动词fall的过去式
n. 兽皮
v
联想记忆
puzzled
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adj. 困惑的;搞糊涂的;茫然的
 
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